Effectiveness is the ability for a process or activity to achieve the expected or intended result. Effective is a qualitative concept that evaluates degrees of good or bad, whereas efficient is a quantitative concept that evaluates the magnitude of something.
How effective something is, is often expressed as a percentage. For example, we might say, 100% inspection – that is, visually inspecting all product for quality defects – is only 80% effective. This 20% gap in expected results can then be dissected into root causes. Less than 100% effective could be for things like human, equipment or process errors.
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